Semiotics

The subject was originally spelled semeiotics to honour John Locke.

Greek word “semeion” means signs.

 

Saussure:

  • Ferdinand de Saussure – father of modern linguistics

 

Signifier

  • These are words or phrases that are completely random meaning.
  • No necessary connection.
  • The meaning expressed is unique to every culture.

 

Signification

  • The transfer of information from the sign to the viewer.

 

Sign

  • Every sign is made up of signifier and the signified.

 

Peirce

  • Charles Sanders Peirce was one of the founders of semiotics.

 

Icons

  • A graphic that resembles a sign i.e. road sign containing a picture of a car.

 

Index

  • Measure of the link between the sign and the object i.e. smoke and heat normally signals fire.

 

Symbol

  • Has an arbitrary relationship between it and the object or concept signified, a symbol of a heart has no direct relationship to the concept of love.

 

Semiosis

  • Transfer of meaning from the sign to the viewer.

 

Interpretant

  • Person experiencing the sign.

 

Barthes

  • Roland Barthes theory.

 

Convention

  • Is an agreement specific to a group or culture that a sign represents a specific thing, object or concept.

 

Motivation

  • Describes how closely a sign represents the object or thing to which it refers.

 

Modality

  • Refers to a specified method by which the information is to be encoded for presentation to humans i.e. sign, text or genre.

 

Denotation

  • Is the surface or literal meaning encoded within their particular culture to a signifier.
  • Definition most likely to appear in a dictionary.

 

Connotation

  • Arises when the denotative relationship between a signifier and its signified has layers beneath its immediate level of meaning.
  • Connotative – photo that has been given a sepia tone to bring about a feeling of nostalgia.

 

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Model looking right upwards – positive message, looking left downwards – negative.

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